Tagged "Tech Tips"


Home Brewer: Cafe in your kitchen - part one

Posted by Stella Cochrane on

So you have finally taken the plunge and bought that shiny new machine you have always wanted and can channel your inner barista from the comfort of your own home. From setting up your machine to making your very first espresso, here are some handy tips to get you started.

Note: Obviously, the following is general advice and you should always follow the instructions provided with your machine.

While your machine may look gleaming and shiny, it’s a good idea to wash all the removable parts in warm, soapy water. Wash the baskets, the portafilter (the handle containing the coffee basket) and the water reservoir to remove any dust and get rid of any plastic or metallic taste.

Espresso is made up of 90% water, so it’s important that you use good quality water. The tap water here in Singapore is pretty darn good due to our advanced water treatment process and reliance on rainwater which contains low levels of calcium and all the minerals that can potentially clog up your machine. However, you will still need to carry out a once yearly descale just to clear out all the components.

Of course to get the cleanest taste and to prevent any problems occurring with your machine you can use bottled or filtered water. This approach would remove any negative effect minerals can have on the flavour of your coffee. A simple filter jug, like a Brita would be more than sufficient, just remember to change the filter regularly so no bacteria can grown around the filter.

Once you’ve filled your water reservoir, fit it back into your machine and turn the machine on. Wait for your espresso machine to heat completely — the portafilter and surrounding metal of the body should be hot, as should the water in the boiler or thermoblock. This will take around 15 to 25 minutes. Brewing temperature has a big impact on the quality of your espresso, so be patient!

Run a full reservoir of water through the group head, portafilter and steam wand to remove any dust or negative flavours from lines that transport water. Once you’ve finished flushing water through, refill the water reservoir.

Just like cooking, making coffee at home can be a little messy if you’re not organised. A couple of damp cloths and a tea towel are very useful, but the easiest way to keep your kitchen bench clean is to use a knock box. This is a small container with a cross bar which allows you to up-end the portafilter and knock old grinds from the basket. I used to use the corner of my bin and was constantly reaching into the murky depths of the rubbish to pick out and rinse off my basket because it would pop out.

You’re also going to need cups, a tamper, a couple of different sized milk jugs and a grinder. There are many grinders on the market and we would recommend a Baratza Sette grinder or if you are on the move a lot a small portable, hand grinder. You may have received a tamper with your espresso machine but these are often a cheap afterthought and rarely fit your basket. Achieving an evenly compressed and level biscuit of coffee within your basket is crucial in order to extract the maximum flavour out of your grinds. It’s worth investing in a good quality tamper like a Pullman, with a base that fits your basket, as it will help with consistency and make the entire process more enjoyable.
Along with using freshly roasted coffee (ideally within two weeks of roasting), the other key to achieving spectacular, café quality coffee at home is the use of a burr grinder. Rather than the ‘whirly blade’ grinders (sold as ‘spice and coffee grinders’) which actually crush the coffee beans unevenly, a burr grinder will shave the beans into clean and consistent particle sized grounds. This allows the water to pass evenly over all of your coffee. Grinding fresh, just before you need to brew your coffee, will ensure that all the volatile oils and aromatics in the beans are kept trapped within the particles rather than, after being exposed to air for more than ten minutes, evaporating into the ether.

By now, your machine should be hot, you will have flushed several litres of water through and you should be armed with your favourite quality, fresh roasted coffee beans from Common Man Coffee Roasters. To create a quality espresso base, the water needs to be passing over the coffee grinds at the right speed. This is controlled by the particle size of the grind. A finer grind will produce a slower pour while a coarser grind will produce a faster pour.

To start with, set your grinder to produce a particle size which feels somewhere between dust and sand when you rub it between your fingers. As a general guide, on a scale of one to ten (one being the finest), this will be around three.

Remove your portafilter from the pre-heated espresso machine and wipe the basket dry with your tea towel. Place your basket under the dosing mechanism of your grinder, turn the grinder on and fill the basket until slightly heaped over. Turn your grinder off and give the portafilter a couple of light taps on the bench to collapse the coffee in the basket. Then go back to the grinder and heap up a little more coffee in the basket. Next, compress the coffee grinds down evenly with your tamper, keeping your arm straight.

When you first set up your espresso machine and grinder, run three or four ‘test’ shots through before you sample a shot. These test shots calibrate the grind correctly, and season the coffee surfaces with oil and flavour.

If the water pours out of your espresso machine too quickly or too slowly, adjust the grind setting finer or coarser to alter the speed of the water flow. Remember, a finer grind produces a slower pour and a coarser grind produces a faster pour. Try to keep the amount of coffee in the basket and the pressure you exert on the tamper the same.

Now watch the espresso shot as it comes out of the portafilter as it starts to loose colour turn it off — the shot will progress from a rich, reddy brown to a tan, caramel colour and finally to a watery, white pour. This loss of colour indicates that the rich oils have been extracted from the grinds. If you keep pouring the shot, bitter, sharp compounds will be added to the cup.

Note: As an interesting experiment, prepare your basket of coffee as usual, get three espresso cups ready and start your extraction. Catch the first reddy, brown part of the pour in the first cup, and as the stream starts to lighten to caramel, quickly put the second cup underneath and then, as the caramel starts to pale to watery white, place the third cup underneath and extract until completely thin and watery. Noting the colour of the crema, taste each cup from last extraction through to the first segment to see where all your flavour is coming from!

Using a double basket will result in two espresso shots of around 20-30mls. It can be quite useful to use a shot glass with a 30ml measuring line for the first couple of weeks to make sure you get the correct amount of espresso as a base for your drinks.

These tips should help you get your Kitchen Café up and running. Remember, drinking coffee is a subjective experience, so make sure you sample plenty of your efforts along the way to discover the perfect technique for your personal taste. And above all else, make sure you have fun!

Watch out for more in this series soon, next we will walk you through steaming your first jug of milk to velvety perfection.

If you’re serious about coffee and want to hone your espresso making skills with a hands-on workshop, sign up for our Skills for the Home Barista class where you can hone your skills with the helping hands of our talented trainers.

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How to keep your Espresso Machine off my work bench

Posted by Matthew Patrick McLauchlan on

Machine cleaning_1While we spend a lot of time maintaining the smooth running of commercial espresso machines, our tech team also have a regular line up of home espresso machines coming through the workshop being given some TLC.

Domestic espresso machines come through the workshop for repairs all the time. They generally present with the same problems. Some are a result of general wear and tear, but some repairs are totally preventable. So we thought it was time to broadcast some of the common preventable problems to not only increase the longevity of your machine, but also to help your beloved friend produce liquid gold like it did the first week it arrived in your home.

We get all kinds of espresso machines through my door (Gaggia, Cimbali, ECM, etc) but we mostly deal with Expobar Minores and Isomacs so the following advice is mainly related to these machines. However it is still relevant to other machines. Each machine has their own intricate and unique problems, but all can start producing terrible coffee if you don't love and care for them. Now the title of my article may make it sound as if we just want to get out of doing some work (which is completely true), however nothing saddens me more than having to charge someone for fixing a problem that could have been avoided completely, or at least delayed, by following some simple steps.

I mean, you bought the machine in the first place because you wanted to make coffee at home just as well as they did in the cafe, right? Well, doing everything a good cafe does to make your $4 takeaway so exceptional is required at home too. This includes maintenance. Let's face it, you've spent all this money on a sweet machine and you don't want to have to fork out more cash for potentially unnecessary repairs.

Please note: this is not a maintenance manual. It's just a few tips, things that we noticed over the years from common issues we see with machines that come across our bench.

Big tip # won! Back flushing

Yeah, that's right, 'won', because that's the direction you're heading when you start doing this regularly. You'll be a winner! If your machine has a three way or solenoid valve (check your manual) then back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush, back flush!! Have I got that point across yet?

Most home machines make one or two coffees a day, then sit idle for 24hrs. If you don't back flush it's like eating a bowl of cereal, leaving the bowl on the bench and using it again the next day. Gross — and eventually you're going to run into problems.

Daily: After every coffee making session, you should back flush with water. Most machines come with some kind of cleaning disc or blind basket. Pop this into your normal handle and run the group until you build up some pressure and turn off to get that spurt out into the drain. Do this a few times. You should be able to see the water becoming clearer in that discharge.

Weekly: Run the same process, this time with some espresso clean (1/4 tsp) and before taking it out, let it sit for a few minutes. This will give the cleaning product a good chance to soak through the oils and allow you to rinse them away when you run the cleaning process again, this time without a cleaning product. If you turn out more than a couple of coffees, you’re certainly not going to do any damage by a more regular detergent clean.

Tip # 2 — Premium vs. regular.

Put good water into your machine. Filtered water. When using bottled water, make sure it doesn't say 'spring water' though, as that's not filtered water. Australia's water supply contains a large amount of ground water and, particularly if you're in Perth or Adelaide, heed this warning as tap water can be devastating to your machine. Combine heat, pressure and whatever makes up our regular tap water, and you've got a cocktail to make the strongest metal weak at the knees.

So if you want longevity from your machine, find the best quality, softest water possible. Good water will also make a dramatic improvement to your coffee quality. If using filtered water is a little pricy, a small water filtering jug like those made by Brita is a great start, but make sure you change the filter regularly.

Tip # 3 — Clean and open workspace

The cleaner you keep your workspace, the more your machine will love you. Roaches love warm electronic boards, and if they get in there, they can cause havoc. Quite simply, a dirty workspace will attract them, and the warm environment will make them call it home. So keep it all clean.

Tip # 4 — Don't panic and do some reading

You may think you don't know anything about that shiny thing on your bench, but hey, neither do many professional café baristas when they first get started. Coffee machines are pretty simple when you break it down. Take some time and learn a little about how your machine works. There are plenty of online forums out there; have a browse and see what you can learn! Of course, remember that you can also head along to the "Australian Barista Academy":http://www.baristaacademy.com.au/ to get some hands on experience.

Tip # 5 — Troubleshoot

When you understand your machine and something goes wrong, step back, put one hand under your arm and the other on your chin and have a think about what's going wrong. Here's a few trouble-shooting examples combined with some very common issues:

Machine cleaning_2

Example 1 — Your machine suddenly pours shots very slowly or not at all.

  1. Is there enough water in the reservoir and is the water or any hose inserted properly?
  2. Check your grinder setting. It may be the same as yesterday, but do you have different beans in there that require a coarser grind setting?
  3. How long since you last made a coffee? Many cheaper domestic machines come with a dual floor/wall/pressurised basket (Might be worth googling, but basically these baskets have many holes on the inside, but only one hole underneath for the coffee to escape. See above picture). This combined with the oils and consistency of espresso, multiplied by a lack of basket maintenance, equals: blocky blocky.
  4. Take the handle out to see how the water flows without the handle in. If it seems restricted, the shower screen could be blocked. (If you have an espresso machine, you should also invest in a stubby screwdriver, so you can easily remove the shower screen and clean it regularly).

Machine cleaning_3

Example 2 — None or only a small amount of steam

  1. Isomac/Expobar — Check the steam gauge. If it's anywhere from 1 to 1.7 bars and stable (depending on where it's set) that means the machine is doing its job and you can start looking at other possible causes.
  2. All machines — Check the steam tip. Yes, I have actually had a few machines come to me after going through an entire warranty process, and it has taken me all of 15 seconds to stick something pointy in the tip and have the machine working again (see picture above).
  3. Always remember to purge the steam wand before and directly after use to remove any milk which may be in the wand.

I hope you find these tips an inspiration to not only go on a sudden cleaning rampage, but also to implement a five minute weekly cleaning routine. Investing just five minutes a week will help to improve both the longevity of your espresso machine and the quality of your coffee. Your tongue and wallet will both be grateful.

This article was originally published on the Five Senses Coffee website: How to Keep your Espresso Machine off my Work Bench.

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